Monday, March 03, 2003
I really REALLY need to snap out of this.I'm procrastinating,but it's growing to the point that i feel out of control with myself.It's like i don't listen or think anymore.I hold back to doing things until it's cracy.people are noticing.THis is getting out of hand.I need to stop it,seriously.i cannot afford to screw this up,after coming here all these years of work.Can't do this to myself now.
posted by Lipgloss assassin at 11:31 AM
WEll.no more pining.No more dreaming.I need to be a student,really focus and be a student.I'm sick of myself always having to catch up.I'm sick of feeling not good enough.i'm sick of it.
Saturday, February 22, 2003
nothing else to call this,but just on implulse.I decided i needed a haircut so bad today,and i went and they basically snapped it all off.I have a sort of a a bob right now.Which is not exactly what i want,but i'm just saying fuck it to myself right now,and trying to make the best out of whats left.Man...i look so far from what i originally wanted.I want to trim it,neaten it a bit,then go for blonde hi-lights...now i'll wait for it to grow a little longer,and just try to take better care of it now,so that it grows out better.I'm up for the streaks though,i think it'll wear better now,than when it was dry and a little brittle before.It's a change,and just i need a fucking change now,whatever form it is.I hope my face clear up soon,cos this is getting me down a little,no matter how hard i'm fighting it,i just don't want to go to school,go out and hang my head down,and not be able to enjoy a simple day because i'm too obsessed with how ppl are treating me,whatever all that shit is supoosed to be called.I realise no matter what product i buy,i'm still going to look something like me,not girls in magazine,not girls i see ard that i keep thinking are better than me because they have nicer stuff.I'm judging my own worth,and everytime i do that i always lost.I'm the worst.Why does it happen that way? dun even look at myself enough to judge myself.I am truly,deeply sick of this.It's juvenile,and the fact that i ca't seem to stop just makes me more mad at myself,and that anger is always shooting off into somebody elses way,and it just cannot go on.It's like i can't even try.THe more things i do,the better i hope i can get,but everytime things just gets worse.Never better.It doesn't seem fair,but maybe i should start competing for the right things,and pick things up. I just want to be a better person,and i'm sick of falling,so if there is some one out there,please tell me what to do,just help me pick it up and move on,because i'm sick of getting my soul broken and broken over nothing.I said these so many times,i'm sick of it.I want tomorrow to be better,And better and better and better.I need it to become better.
posted by Lipgloss assassin at 8:56 AM
Thursday, February 20, 2003
Nobody is reading this and this is the way i like it.This is peace.I'm finding it easier to do this now,because it's harder to write it down on paper now.It's hard to go back.
posted by Lipgloss assassin at 6:46 AM
I was feeling pretty shitty today,because i was sick,and alone in school,cos everybody i know had something to do all of a sudden at the same time.Funny.It was a pretty bad feeling,being weak and lonesome and walking around school,feeling like nobody's there for me.Even receiving a stranger's smile or anything would help lift me up a little,but didnt happen.People look nice,though.I ate on my own today.It's a first.It's not that scary,i feel like myself,and people left me alone,so thats all right.I feel like a loser saying things like this,but everybody has these days,I guess.You have to go down the low before you appreciate the high.Whatever that means.
I am still looking for a person.It's hard to go school without someone you look forward to going to class for,just so you get to see him.It's hard to fall for somebody,or even a crush...I don't fall easily,when i do,i should take the chance.Cos it's not as easy as you think,and it doesn't happen very often,so...we should never take our time like that.I don't have a hard hit on somebody right now,but i think there is someone i want to get to know better first.I've screwed it up the first few times,so now i just hope i don't screw it up again.I just need to talk to him,for a chance.Then we'll see what goes from there.
sometimes i just wish life was less complicated for me.I just want something to work for me,once.Why does it always look easy when other people do it?
Wednesday, August 28, 2002
Topic for tutorial 2
posted by Lipgloss assassin at 9:16 AM
Start with a very simple life form in a three dimensional world. Reverse engineering of Origins of Life Theory starting with simplest life form, bacterium in a non competitive environment. By non competitive I mean it does not compete with any other living organism including its own species.
Discuss what a theory of origins of life should contain:
1. First. Make a definition of life for your bacterium. You will need to list a minimum set of criteria for your microbe to satisfy in order to be considered alive in a non competitive world. Compare your definition with a virus. How are the two different?
2. Second. List the minimum vital functions or processes, your bacterium should have to be a life form according to your definition. It will help to list what the bacterium will not need in an ideal non competitive environment.
3. Now suppose we want to start life off in a three dimensional water world, for example an ocean, lake, pond or droplet. Starting with your soup, a dilute solution of small organic molecules in solution, construct your theory starting with small simple organic molecules. I suggest you define various stages that your system will have to traverse in order to be considered alive. Do not forget that you will need an energy source to overcome potential energy barriers as you build complex or ordered structures.
Topic for Tutorial 3
Tuesday, August 27, 2002
posted by Lipgloss assassin at 6:53 AM
Application to the Singapore case
Questions: Is there an absence of politics in Singapore? To what extent is Singapore a democracy? Who has power in Singapore? Discuss.
Some useful definitions
Power: The ability of individuals or groups to make their own interests or concerns count, even when others resist (Weber).
Authority: legitimate use of power; usually not necessary to back it up by coercive force.
Legitimacy: having the consent of those subject to authority; legitimate power is recognized as valid and justified.
Authority: 3 bases (Weber)
Traditional: beliefs and practices passed down from generation to generation; sometimes seen as sacred.
Charismatic: belief that leaders have exceptional qualities that deserve respect and devotion.
Legal-rational: explicit laws that define legitimate uses of power.
Are dictatorships necessarily illegitimate?
NOT ALWAYS, in some cases--as long as it can deliver peace & prosperity.
BUT it could also be that people are not able to resist; they then learn to adapt to and accept the status quo.
Power—a dimension in all relationships
state-citizen/people within a defined territory
Models of power
Power can expand/contract like credit creation.
Power used for collective benefits.
Zero-sum or Constant (Marx, Weber)
“like a pie”.
Measuring/ Expressing Power
Lukes’ 3 faces of power
1. Who makes decisions? Situational, tied to particular issues.
2. Who sets agenda?
Define key issues, decide what is to be included/excluded.
3. Who benefits? E.g., beautiful park vs crematorium, garbage dump, highway.
Theories of Power: Marxist
Capitalist class relations: the power structure serves the interest of the capitalist class, e.g., institution of private property; profit is acceptable.
The state =
“executive committee of the capitalist class” (Marx).
“instrument of ruling class (Miliband).
“supportive of capitalism” even though it is relatively autonomous (Poulantzas).
Theories of Power: Marxist
Ideological hegemony = dominant class seeks to maintain its position by persuading subordinate class(es) that its values are in the interest of all.
Subordinate class(es) accept/ consent to domination.
Role of intellectuals: could become ideologues or critics (providing alternative visions).
Theories of Power: Elitist (Michels)
Elitist: rule of many by the few.
“Iron law of oligarchy”.
Organizations grow in size and complexity.
Run by officials (experts).
Entrenched interests of officials.
Apathy and lack of involvement of members.
Started out democratic, ended up less than democratic.
The Power Elite: C.W. Mills
A well-integrated and partly self-perpetuating power elite linked by friendship and familial ties and share common backgrounds.
Top brass in military, economic, political organizations.
Theories of Power: Pluralist
Power is dispersed among a variety of competing interest groups: businesses, unions, environmental groups, women’s groups, senior citizens’ groups.
Decision-making is through a process of bargaining.
Complex institutions & organizations for exercising authority within a given territory: (parliament, civil service, police, military).
Nation: a people (sense of identity and community).
Nation-State: rule over a people/nation.
Monopoly over the legitimate use of power.
Sovereignty: clear-cut borders.
Citizenship: membership and rights.
The Welfare State
A major 20th century phenomenon..
Education, housing, healthcare.
Rights (entails responsibility) or entitlements?
Fine balance between taxation (hurt the middle class) and welfare (benefit the poor).
Singapore—use of CPF.
Demos = the people
Kratos = authority
Democracy = rule by the people
Who are “the people”?
What kind of participation are allowed? Major decisions? Which spheres?
What conditions apply?
Representative democracy (voting) vs direct democracy (referendum)
Political parties & interest groups
“realm between the family sphere and the state”.
“sphere of social life where individuals pursue their own self-interest within universally recognized bounds”.
“a realm of free activity and voluntary association that is neither organized by the state nor driven by market forces.”
Examples: churches, unions, professional associations.
Extent of civic engagement on the decline? Privatization of social life?
The Singapore Case: Chua BH
Political legitimacy achieved through ideological efficacy.
1960s-1970s: survivalism & pragmatism.
1980s: consultative style, feedback channels, representation.
1990s: Asian values, Confucianism, communitarianism.
(nation before community, society above self, resolving issues through consensus).
New millennium: new survivalism? National identity, welfarism?
The Singapore Case: Hill & Lian
Civil Society vs Civic Society
The Singapore Case: Tan & Chiew
Repoliticization: an increasing propensity for political participation among middle-class Singaporeans?
Tocqueville’s insights (1830s)
Private life is so busy in democratic periods, so excited, so full of wishes and of work, that hardly any energy or leisure remains to each individual for public life.
The majority of people do not clearly see what they have to gain by a revolution, but they continually and in a thousand ways feel that they might lose from one.
Tocqueville’s insights (1830s)
(The power of the state) is absolute, minute, regular, provident, and mild. It would be like the authority of a parent, …keep them in perpetual childhood…spare them all the care of thinking and all the trouble of living.
The will of man is not shattered, but softened, bent, and guided…till each nation is reduced to be nothing better than a flock of timid and industrious animals, of which the government is the shepherd.
Sunday, August 25, 2002
SC1101E MAKING SENSE OF SOCIETY (INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY)
posted by Lipgloss assassin at 10:03 PM
2. General Introduction: What is Sociology?
Aim of this Lecture
• To look at basic issues, i.e. what makes up sociology and what is the object of sociological study
• To examine the central concerns in sociology, i.e. the aims and objectives of sociological investigation
• To trace the origins of sociology as a social science, i.e. how sociology emerged as a modern form of knowledge. Note:
- sociology = socio + logos
- socio-: from Latin societas (society)
- -logy: from Greek logos (knowledge)
• To give a brief overview of approaches in sociology, i.e. their thematic concerns as set out by classical sociological theorists
• The sociological perspective (refer to Peter Berger ‘Invitation to Sociology’)
- The study of all aspects of society: everything in society is of interest and in principle can be studied by sociologists
- the different types and forms of social relations (organization, institutions — both formal and informal)
- the rules that guide these forms of social relations (norms, values, rules —explicitly stated and not explicitly stated) (Refer to Dr Todd Ames’ orientation lecture)
- the sociological perspective and ‘commonsense knowledge’
Some examples from local contexts:
Colonial perceptions of the ‘Chinaman’ in Singapore
Consumption behaviour of low-income people
- the importance of history
• But what kinds of society do sociologists study?
- Modern, urban, industrial, capitalist society, i.e. complex societies
- Contra simple, non-literate, so-called ‘primitive’ societies
- What does ‘modern’ mean?
Complex patterns of social relations
High degree of uncertainty
Technology and change
The Sociological Imagination
• Private (personal) troubles versus public (social) issues
• Sociology focuses on the public/social — not the individual
The Central Concerns
• Understanding — but what kind?
• Explanation — but what kind?
• Social structure
• Action or Agency
The Origins of Sociology
• Origins of sociology closely related to the emergence and rise of urban, industrial, capitalist society in Europe
• But what is urban, industrial, capitalist society?
- urbanization: emergence of large-scale cities with high population densities
- industrialization: result of Industrial Revolution, application of science, division of labour, factories, mass production, factory workers do not own the factories, tools etc. (the ‘means of production’)
- capitalism: emergence and development of banking system, intensification of borrowing and lending, availability of funds for industrialization
- related socio-economic and political changes
• Major structural changes: social, cultural, economic, political
Approaches in Sociology: Some Main Themes
• Dominant classical approaches in sociology may be traced back to social theorists attempting to understand and explain the profound changes that were occurring in the nineteenth century and early twentieth century.
• Here, we focus on Marx, Durkheim, and Weber, (See Calhoun for other theorists)
Reason: Main themes that they identified are still relevant today. (Just look at some of the topics that will be dealt with in this course.) Other theorists are also important but may be located within the main themes identified by Marx, Durkheim and Weber
• Marx: Capitalism, Class and Social Conflict
- Capitalist system divided into classes
- Capitalists (owners of capital)
- Proletariat (workers)
- Workers alienated from the work process and products of their labour
- Capitalists want to maximize profits
- Workers are unhappy and want to overthrow the system, but only if they have class consciousness
- Marx important for highlighting class (social stratification), power relations, ideology, social action (collective struggle)
• Durkheim: Social Solidarity (What integrates Society?)
- Explanation essentially based on functional integration
- Mechanical solidarity, i.e. shared beliefs, values and customs (religion) – in the case of premodern societies
- Organic solidarity, i.e. interdependency based on division of labour (in other words primarily economic but social relations are involved) in the case of modern industrial, capitalist societies
- Role of culture
- Durkheim important for highlighting the importance and mechanisms of social solidarity/integration
• Weber: the Rationalization of Society
- Emphasized the importance of understanding the subjective motivations of peoples’ actions, decisions, behaviour
- We can do this because we are ourselves human and social beings, hence: verstehen (empathetic understanding) as a method
- Industrial-capitalist development leads to increasing rationalization of society:
Increasing emphasis on efficiency
Increasing bureaucratization of society
Increasing emphasis on rational calculation
Increasing emphasis on the importance of science to acquire knowledge and apply it to society
- But Weber also drew attention to other factors that could affect the above trend: e.g., ‘race,’ religion, status groups versus socio-economic class
- Weber important for highlighting rationalization, secularization in modern society
• This is a broad introduction to some of the central issues in sociology — some (not all) of these issues will be covered in this module
• This is not intended to make you sociologists or theorists in sociology
• However, what you will discover is this: as you go along in this module, you will think and analyse social relations more sociologically
Thursday, August 22, 2002
Nationalism and the Emergence of New States
posted by Lipgloss assassin at 3:31 AM
Lecture Week 4 (23 August 2002)
1. What is nationalism?
2. Emergence of nationalism and pro-independence movements in SEA.
3. Increase in pro-independence movements in SEA.
4. The origins of national identities.
1. WHAT IS NATIONALISM?
• Feeling of belonging to a nation, identifying with a nation. According to Benedict Anderson (1983), a well-known scholar of nationalism and SEA, nation is ‘an imagined political community that is inherently limited and sovereign’.
o imagined: never meet all members, but can think of them, co-existing.
o community: a ‘we feeling’, connotation of common bonds, idea of some kind of equality, notion of citizenship (participation in a group, not a ‘subject’ of a ruler).
o limited: implicit recognition of other nations – may imagine your nation to occupy a larger space, but it cannot take in the whole whole world.
o sovereign: internally autonomous, political control exercised from within the nation, not by outside power. Thus cannot have modern nationalism without the idea of the modern, sovereign state.
• National identity is different from other identities (family/kin; local community; political party; ethnic group; religious group; class). While these other identities all can be either local or transnational, possibly global. Therefore, national identity is fixed to a particular country, in aspiration if not practice.
2. EMERGENCE OF NATIONALISM AND PRO-INDEPENDENCE MOVEMENTS IN SEA
• Pro-Independence Movements and Leaders
o Earliest nationalist groups in SEA were in the Philippines, in the late 19th C. Combination of educated youth and peasant movement, aim to free the Philippines from Spanish rule. Declared independence from Spain in 1898 – took the US several years to suppress them militarily, and co-opt local elites. Jose Rizal and others.
o Vietnam: some organized resistance as soon as French consolidated rule in 1885, but more pro-monarch than national. Ho Chi Minh and others.
o Nationalist groups established in several SEA territories early in 20thC. Young Men’s Budhist Association, 1906, in British-ruled Burma. Budi Oetomo, 1908, in Dutch-ruled Java.
o Numbers of groups rapidly incrased in the 1910s, 1920s: large rise in publications, newspapers, political organizations, ferment of activity. Sukarno-Hatta-Semaun-Tjokroaminoto in Indonesia. Aung San in Burma. Pridi-Phibun in Thailand.
o Major political crackdowns in Vietnam and Netherlands India especially from late 1920s, many anti-colonialist leaders imprisoned or exiled.
• Aims and Characters of Pro-Independence Movements
o Not all pro-independence movements had a clear idea of creating modern nation-states organized along the territorial lines of modern SEA countries.
o Peasant-based uprisings and anti-colonial protests, strong emphasis on land re-distribution.
o Some groups organizing along ethnic lines: -eg Chinese nationalist groups (in SEA) inspired by victory of Sun Yatsen in Chinese revolution of 1911; or some Malay nationalist groups whose vision of the nation, and anti-colonial activity, was also bound up with ethnic identity.
o Some groups mobilized along religious lines: eg Syarikat Islam (the white faction led by Tjokroaminoto) in Netherlands Indies.
o Many anti-colonial movements borrowed a lot from socialist or Marxist thinking, some were explicitly communist.
o Religious, nationalist and marxist motivations sometimes fractured anti-colonial or pro-independence movements (and divisions affected post-independence politics in countries like Indonesia) but were not necessarily antagonistic: -eg Soekarno’s famous 1928 speech on ‘Nationalism, Islam and Marxism’; - and also Ho Chi Minh: self-declared communist but clearly strongly nationalist.
3. INCREASE IN PRO-INDEPENDENCE MOVEMENTS
o Spread of education, development of new ideas, new ways of perceiving and expressing views about injustices of colonialism .
• Print Media.
o Literacy important for being able to communicate these ideas: proliferation of print media.
• Economic Conditions.
o Hardship and social dislocation as SEA population very badly affected by world depression in 1930s; collapse of prices of commodities produced in SEA; and also increasing problems of landlessness and indebtedness among peasants.
o Pro-independence movements suppressed or contained through the 1930s.
• WWII and Japanese occupation very important:
o Showed European powers could be defeated.
o Japanese freed/promoted nationalist leaders: allowed them to mobilize masses in public gatherings (especially Sukarno).
o Local bureaucrats given more powers, responsibility.
o Japanese established some armed military groups of locals: training, confidence, aspirations. Also increase in capacity and organization of groups resisting Japanese occupation.
• Uneven and varied nature of SEA anti-colonial movements
o Very intense in Indonesia: declared independence as soon as Japan defeated, then fought Dutch for 4 years to attain it. Dutch ceded Indonesia in 1949. Also intense in Vietnmam – first fought against returning French, then against US and US-backed government in South --- did not win this national liberation fight until 1975.
o Less strong in Malaysia and Singapore: British able to come back, faced communist groups opposed to their return but much of population, especially local elites, accepted prolonged process of gaining independence (Malaya granted independence in 1957; internal self-rule for Singapore in 1959)
4. THE ORIGINS OF NATIONAL IDENTITIES
• In some cases an important force: population prepared to fight for a country that did not yet exist.
• This raises question of why post-independence countries of SEA largely conform to territorial units of colonial powers.
• For instance, no obvious cultural, linguistic, religious reasons to draw boundaries as they are now:
o Malays of Sumatra and peninsula Malaysia share common language, a lot of pre-colonial history, religion… but in separate countries.
o Shans of Burma and Shans of Thailand share common language and culture and others but in separate countries.
• Again, Benedict Anderson (‘Imagined Communities’) argued that many anti-colonial groups conceived of independent nation-states that would exist within the territory of the colonial power because of the processes of colonialism.
• By being educated with other people in the colonial territory, and serving in the colonial bureaucracies, having to use a common language of administration and schooling, coming into contact with others like themselves and developed a group consciousness that was contained by the colonial territory. Meanwhile, the European colonial officials might leave and serve in other colonies or return to Europe and the local bureaucrats would stay in the colony.
posted by Lipgloss assassin at 3:30 AM
“Colonialism and the Idea of Southeast Asia”
(17 August 2002)
Introduction: Examining Another Wave of External Influences on Southeast Asia
Trade and European Contacts with and Purposes in Southeast Asia
european Colonial Rule in Southeast Asia
Conclusion: European and Southeast Asian Actors
The Idea of “Southeast Asia”
I. Trade and European Contacts with and Purposes in
A. SOUTHEAST ASIA IN AN ASIAN TRADE ‘REGION’
● most of SEA, especially coastal areas, long involved in trade, centuries before Europeans came to SEA
● local people trading with Arab, Indian and Chinese traders. Some of these ‘outsiders’ settled in the region but not mass migration.
● active exchange systems linking SEA with China and India, and SEA serving as bridge between China and India
● SEA ports used for taking on supplies, waiting for favourable winds, mediating points for exchanging goods from elsewhere
B. EUROPEAN TRADERS
“Empire is about three things: Gold, God, and Glory.”
● Europeans begain to participate in this trade system from 16th C
● Portuguese capture of Malacca 1511, trading post until lost to Dutch in 1641
• Spanish reached what is now Philippines 1521, a few decades later using Manila as a port in the “galleon trade” to carry Chinese goods to Mexico, for shipment onward to Spain
• Spanish also major missionizing actors: aim (largely successful) to Christianize the Philippines.
• Dutch traders came to region in 17th C.
o trade by the Dutch East India Company [Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie or VOC] with monopoly conferred by Dutch authority. attempted to maintain monopoly on trade in spices
o founded Batavia, today’s Jakarta, in 1619 as an administrative center of VOC trading activities
o privileged but not a part of the Dutch government
o early colonization of north coast of Java and of other islands in today’s Indonesia thus carried out by a transnational commercial enterprise.
o not so profitable in the end… bankrupt by end of 18th C, Dutch govt took over the colony 1800
• English trade and colonization in SEA also carried out in part by commercial firm – its own East India Company – same one that colonized India (and ruled it till the 1850s) before sending agents to go to SEA.
o came to Penang first, 1786; Singapore 1819; Malacca swapped from Dutch 1824. Led to “forward movement” to rule most of Malaya from the 1870s.
o Raffles was a “company man” .. sought to promote free trade in contrast to monopolistic practices of the Dutch and Spanish
o another, separate English company ended up governing North Borneo [Sabah] later in 19th C; the Brooke family ruled Sarawak as “white rajahs” and dominated its trade all the way to the Second World War
o Britain annexed Burma to its Indian empire in three stages: 1820s, 1850s, 1880s.
• French onto the scene from the mid-19th C, unlike others did not limit themselves to trading post enclave at first: took Vietnam in 1860s (south) and 1880s (north and center), Cambodia in 1864, and what is now Laos in 1893.
• United States join the “game” of empire in 1898, when it replaced Spain in the Philippines.
C. PRODUCTION OF CASH CROPS FOR WORLD MARKETS
“Remember: at the end of the day, empire must pay!”
• until 19th C, European traders mostly limited to using SEA posts as mediating points in India-China-Europe trade, some trade in local products
• in 19th C began major production of cash crops: getting local people to grow products such as rice, sugar and (later) rubber for world market; major change in organization of rural activity and land use. This was seen as “unlocking the tropics”.
• some evidence of increase in incomes of Southeast Asian producers over 19th C, compared to subsistence farming, but also increased vulnerability to price fluctuations on world commodity markets. Collapse of prices with Depression in 1930s was a disaster for many Southeast Asians.
• large plantations: importation of outside labourers from India, China or within SEA (eg from Java to Sumatra)
• Chinese migrant labour also used in tin mines in Malayan penninsula
• Economic change brought change in way of life in rural areas; change in population
II. European Colonial Rule in Southeast Asia
A. TRADING OUTPOSTS, INDIRECT RULE
• Portuguese, Dutch, and British came to SEA for commercial reasons and initially only established themselves in small trading centres
• needed security, access to local products and often wanted to exclude others from trade in some products
• these aims sometimes brought them into conflict with local rulers – but not always
• frequent collaboration with local rulers – or aspiring rulers who were willing to accept European support in return for cooperation
• early colonial period, life for ordinary people changed very little – often not much contact with authority figures, many of the local ruling systems remained as before
• this began to change as requirements of government change; for example the need to organize rural areas for the production of cash crops in large volumes
• even so, many areas remain under systems of ‘indirect rule’
o local ruler/aristocrat was officially maintained in position
o he would act on the ‘advice’ of a colonial official
o governed through increasingly formalized indigenous bureaucracy
o in Malaya, this system characterized the “Unfederated Malay States” of Johor, Perlis, Kelanan, Trengganu, Kedah
B. DIRECT RULE and TERRITORIAL EXPANSION
• other areas were ruled directly: colonial bureaucracy under a European governor. For example, the Federated Malay States of Selangor, Negeri Sembilan, Pahang, Perak
• even in directly ruled territories, colonial govts started off with limited goals and resources: revenue limits, small staffs, focus on trade, production and security. Idea was to keep government cheap.
• some similarities with indigenous systems of government
o adopted elements of display, ceremony
o same recourse to delegation of functions, such as “tax farming”
• territorial expansion often a slow, unplanned process, as in the case of British takeover of Malay peninsula
• expansion often motivated by ambition of local governor, need to maintain ‘law and order’ in economically important area not under colonial control, or to secure access by colonial business-people; the “man-on-the-spot” dimension of empire
• as competition among colonizing power increased, territorial conquests seemed more important
C. GROWTH OF GOVERNMENT STRUCTURES
• Except in case of Philippines under Spain, where church officials governed and had missionary goals, not interested in moral condition of locals until very late
• Welfare, public works, health and education services that modern govts aim (or profess) to provide not really developed at all until end of 19th C/ early 20th C…
• except for public works like roads and railways, remained limited by modern standards
• but compared to earlier times, early 20th C saw large expansion in government: more departments, more officials, more locals involved in bureaucracy, more contact with ordinary people
• this expansion opened new opportunities in lower and middle ranks of colonial bureaucracies for some Southeast Asians, those with the means and good luck to have access to Western-style educations. These SE Asians would play a large role in anti-colonial nationalism and post-independence government and politics. Consider, for example, the cases of Lee Kuan Yew, Sukarno, or Tungku Abdul Rahman.
D. TERRITORIALITY: HARD BORDERS, EVENTUALLY
• territorial expansion by colonial powers introduced new concept to SEA – idea of an international border
o take borders for granted now: pass from one jurisdiction to another, govt cannot (usually) claim authority over you when outside the country…
o as discussed last week, not so clear-cut in precolonial SEA
o also not entirely clear for much of colonial era – eg some of the Malay states remained formally independent for years, with British ‘advisers’, sometimes present with Thai ‘advisers’ at same time
• the case of Siam, today’s Thailand
o avoided colonization, not least by accepting reduced but better defined borders
o but had to give up areas that had been under its influence: northern Malaya, Cambodia, Laos
o granted trade concessions to British and others from mid-19th century
o granted ‘extraterritorial’ rights to European foreigners in Siam – agreed to allow to run own justice systems and commercial law within Thai territory
o changed structures and capacities of own bureaucracy to provide many new governmental functions, similar to expansion of govt in colonized SEA, “internal colonization”
o ability of Siamese govt to do this could not be taken for granted – required organization, effort and skill …
III. Conclusion: European and Southeast Asian Actors
The Idea of “Southeast Asia”
A. WHO MADE SE ASIAN HISTORY DURING THE COLONIAL PERIOD?
• impact of changing trade and authority patterns was significant
• but not necessarily the case that all the changes were result of colonial actors
• local actors also important to course of events – as rulers, bureaucrats, traders, tax collectors, police, and above all as producers – not everything they did simply in response to outside demands, also embraced new opportunities
• even less the case that events unfolded in accordance with plans of colonial govts: actions often had unintended consequences
o hardship, social dislocation, resentment rebellions, resistance, crime…
o incorporation of locals into govt, development of education aspirations, ideas that differed from those of colonial power…
B. HOW HAS THE HISTORY OF “SOUTHEAST ASIA” BEEN
• Still, much of history of SEA was written by people associated with colonial powers – tended to focus on importance and role of colonial authority: “imperial history” rather than “Southeast Asian history”
• increasingly from mid-20th C, SEA people began writing their own history. others began to question previous emphasis what European actors did.
• perspective is important: who you are can influence what you see and choose to write about, how you interpret things: one issue of perspective relates to the idea of the region’s coherence
• physical landscape does not dictate where we put regional boundaries. What else has played a role in defining SEA as a coherent region? Yesterday’s lecture argued for the importance of external influences, of certain patterns of cultural borrowing, of “localization”.
• more recently, politics has come to the fore: Japan’s control of the whole region between 1942 and 1945 led those who had lost control and now found themselves outside the region fighting to get back in to view the region as a unit, with shared circumstances. But these were outsiders.
• took a while for consensus to develop as to what area term referred to, but the emphasis has so often been political. October 1949 helped determine that, as SEA became “not the PRC” in the minds of outsiders. ASEAN (1967) created by SE Asians themselves, but still essentially a political understanding of the region.
• whether we consider a group of countries or geographical area to be a ‘region’ changes in response to actual trends – eg trade and investment flows, migration, political developments. ALSO the matter of interests, intellectual AND material.
• a big mistake to assume that SEA now static. It is home to the world’s newest nation, after all: East Timor. Should region be seen to include southern or southwestern parts of China? Northeastern parts of India? Or does it make more sense to think of a broader Asian region? Or a Western Pacific one, that includes Australia? That’s how the US Navy logistics command up at Sembawang seems to see it.
• Key point is that today, when we think about SEA, we think above all about the political outlines of the region. Consider how many people use “ASEAN” and Southeast Asia interchangeably? Now that ASEAN includes all ten SE Asian nations (but not yet East Timor!), is there anything wrong with this usage? Maybe not, but consider that, 100 years ago few of the ten nations of today’s ASEAN existed in anything resembling their present form … The topic of next week’s lecture, with Dr Priyambudi, is how these new states emerged.
posted by Lipgloss assassin at 3:28 AM
“Conceptions of Space and Authority in Early Southeast Asia”
(16 August 2002)
“LOCALIZATION” AND THE INFLUENCE OF INDIC CONCEPTS ON THE REGION
THE MANDALA POLITYAND IDEAS OF SPACE AND AUTHORITY
THERAVADA BUDDHISM, ISLAM, AND THEIR IMPACT ON IDEAS ABOUT SPACE AND AUTHORITY
THE LEGACIES OF THESE EARLY INFLUENCES AND PROCESSES IN MODERN SOUTHEAST ASIA
I. “Localization” and the influence of Indic concepts on early SE Asia
--SEA as a cross-roads, long history of waves of outside influence: Indic, Sinic. Islamic, Iberian, North Atlantic
--both experience of these influences and ways in which they have
been received are important aspects of SEA’s coherence
--key form of reception process has been “localization”: the borrowing of foreign materials and their reworking into
new, original, Southeast Asian “local cultural statements”
--this is evident in the case of the influence of Indic concepts of space and authority in early SEA. But problem of source bias in our understanding of early SEA? Maybe.
--Need to try to investigate ties between thought—the world in the mind—and institutions of society and government that stemmed from the influence of Indic religion—Hinduism or Brahmanism and Mahayana Buddhism on SEA from early times, some 2000 years ago. Influences came through trade, but its bearers were people called “Brahmins”.
II. Mandala polities and related ideas of space and authority
A. Space … What is a “mandala”, anyway? (Term is from Sanskrit term.)
-- according to one author: “a pattern of borderless political organization shaped by devotional cults”. But what does this mean?
--also referred to as a “galactic polity”, like a galaxy—dense at the center and less so at its poorly defined edges, bordered by similar polities. Within the mandala are numerous other
nodes, subordinate to its center.
--So what was at the center of the mandala? Power, the king, and
his cult. Often referred to as the “exemplary center. Organization of a polity must be in harmony with the cosmos, the universe. State and kingship have cosmological basis.
--And what faded gradually away at its poorly defined edges? Power, influence,authority, sovereignty. So different fromtoday’s territorially defined polities.
--Since the mandala polity was image of the universe, that polity
was universalist in its conception
B. Authority … What, exactly, stood at the dense core of the mandala?
*The king and the cult.
-- In 820, a Khmer or Cambodian king named Jayavarman II
inaugurated the cult of the deva-raja. This was a cult to the
Hindu god Siva, a cult that associated the king with Siva,
that made the king the ritual embodiment of god.
--Creation of the deva-raja and similar cults to Siva in early Southeast Asia are prime examples of localization
--If the king had access to the secrets of the cosmos, he also demonstrated the concentration of power in him in various ways. His leadership was charismatic. He was, in a famous phrase, a “man of prowess
--In Mahayana Buddhist terms, the kinghe was a Cakkravatin (He Who Sets Rolling the Wheel of the Buddhist Law), “Universal Monarch”.
C. With these features of spatial organization and authority in mind, what were the resultant states like?
--First, we know that it was highly centralized.
--Second, through ritual associated with the cult of the deva-raja, the king could emphasize his access to divine power. Sometimes referred to as a “theatre state”.
--Third, the focus of the state was on the king as the polity, not on society.
--Fourth, it was universalistic in its conception. Not defined either in relation to other states or to history. Entire orientation was on the present
--Fifth, it made for a series of small, highly unstable states.
III. Thervada Buddhism, Islam, and their impact on ideas about space and authority
A. Theravada Buddhism (from the 12th-13th centuries)
--spread to Burma, Siam, Cambodia, Laos
a. Doctrinal Buddhism – philosophical teaching.
b. Popular Buddhism – beliefs in merit and demerit and in past lives.
Merit – “good deed” or good actions of past lives.
Demerit – faulty actions of past lives.
a. Personal influence or force derived from merit.
b. Personal influence or force derived from supernatural power.
c. Personal influence or force derived from charisma.
d. Authority or legal power acquired by being in high official positions.
Centre and periphery
1. The palace as the centre.
2. The city/capital as the centre.
3. The king as the centre.
1. Individual with greatest stock of merit
2. Ruler of the kingdom – symbolically, the ruler of the universe.
3. Guarantor of kingdom’s prosperity: peace, wealth, trade, education, religion
--Protector of the religion.
--Protector of the kingdom’s well-being.
4. Leader in war
--power expansion (charisma not territory).
--recruitment of manpower.
--protection of the religion.
--unity of the universe.
B. Islam (from the 13th century)
--spread to much of maritime SEA
--the importance of the model/example of Melaka sultanate (to Islam in 1430s)
--ruler as leader of community (ummat), as God’s representative (katipullah)
--power rested with God, not in a cosmology
--less a question of the “theatre state”, more emphasis on the practical role of a ruler and his ability to show that he represented God
--society of Muslims now important, rather than polity centered on king
--more participatory, more egalitarian
--more international: not the center of universe but one of many Islamic polities
--focus of power still the center of the city
--center now held mosque, public square, market-place, residences of commercial and religious groups
--a space in which all members of a society of Muslims had things to do
--resultant great cohesion between capital and hinterland, emergence of territorial states (replacing city-states and loose kingdoms of earlier SEA)
--parallel understanding of international space, as polity was no longer center of universe
--more “modern” concept of geopolitical space
IV. Legacies of these early influences and processes in modern SE Asia
A. Orientation toward the present of Southeast Asians
--tied to the influence of Indic conceptions of the polity?
B. Fluidity of power relations persists despite contemporary strong and coercive state power.
--the notion of constant power struggle due to the ability of leaders to concentrate power, to maintain powerful centre as well as the ability for people to resist.
C. Bases of leadership and legitimation
--continued importance of mystical power in modern times despite rapid economic and social changes: monuments, retinues, “prowess”.
--part of search for stability, for control over rapidly changing environment?
OR ARE A, B, C TOO FORCED, CULTURALIST, ILLOGICAL?
And who has introduces and uses ideas about “unique” cultural differences? Southeast Asians? Outsiders? What kinds of Southeast Asians? What kinds of outsiders? What has been at stake when these arguments are used? How effective have these arguments been in the recent past, especially if they are in the form of political rhetoric, on Southeast Asians and their societies? And how effective are they today? Think about some examples.
D. Role of territorial and international orientations of Islamic polities
--gave capital cities and territories that they governed the cohesive force and framework for resistance against European economic and political challenge
--note similar effect of Chinese political technologies in Vietnam
--both aided the wider nationalist movement of the modern era:next lecture.
Sociology lecture 3.
posted by Lipgloss assassin at 3:19 AM
THE METHODS OF RESEARCH
There are a number of different approaches that allow us to gather information about the social world. Each approach or method is a tool which allows us to acquire different types of information about any topic. This lecture will compare the various tools in the methodological toolbox and examine some of the ways to apply them.
Topics of Discussion
The Basis for Sociological Investigation
Ways of Knowing
Common Sense versus Scientific Evidence
Measuring the Facts
Relationships Among Variables
Methods of Research
– Survey Research
The Basis for Sociological Investigation
a. Look at the world around you.
b. Use the Sociological Perspective.
c. Be curious and ask questions.
Ways of Knowing
a. personal experience
b. religious faith
c. expert knowledge
d. commonly recognized fact
Scientific Knowledge is based on Empirical Evidence
Defined as the results of systematic procedures.
Something we are able to verify with our senses.
Common Sense versus Scientific Evidence
Common sense is useful but it can be misleading.
Common sense often can produce incorrect findings, both in the natural world as well as the social world.
Sociology follows scientific logical proceedings.
Measuring the Facts
a. Concept = an abstract idea
b. Variables = any concept that varies
c. Measurement = determining the value of a variable
d. Operationalization = specifying what will be measured
Three Statistical Measures
a. Mode = value that occurs most often
b. Mean = arithmetic average
c. Median = the value in the middle
US $Incomes in Singapore
Mean = $21,600
Important Considerations in Measurement
Reliability = consistency in measurement
Validity = measuring what you intend
Relationships Among Variables
a. Cause and Effect = when change in one variable causes change in another
b. Independent Variable = the one that causes change
c. Dependent Variable = the one that is changed
Further Relationships Among Variables
d. Correlation = when two variables vary together
e. Spurious Correlation = two variables vary but are not related
f. Scientific Control = neutralizing one variable to better observe relationship
Three Requirements for Cause and Effect
a. Two Variables are Correlated
b. Independent Variable precedes Dependent
c. No evidence for Spurious Correlation
Methods of Research
Survey Research = useful in getting answer to specific questions
Survey Research draws on sample of population
• a. random sample
• b. quota sample
• c. snowball sample
Survey Research Methods
Survey Research Instruments
– a. Questionnaires = usually a series of written questions for respondents to answer
– b. Interviews = usually a series of questions asked face to face or over the phone
Observations=used to get information on something in its social context
a. Participant Observations = when the researcher participates in the activities of the people being studied
B. Non-participant Observations = when the researcher just observes the social scene
b. Ethnography = studying a community or group in great detail
c. Case Study = study a particular group or process
Some Research Issues
Do not influence those you observe.
Hawthorn Effect = when the research itself effects the outcome
A. Do not harm the subjects.
B. Do not violate confidential information.
C. Do not break the law.
Secondary Analysis = analysis of existing data
Most research starts by considering existing work.
Very fast and efficient.
Researcher has no control over data.
Experiments = test for relationships by controlling the process
A. Measure the dependent.
B. Expose dependent to independent.
C. Re-measure dependent for change.
Zimbardo Prison Experiment
US Government Welfare Experiment
Milgram Shock Experiment
Experiments that would be interesting.
Experiments you can do at home.